Substance Source 51 Materials
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Substance Source 51 Materials
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(a) Substances which, when mixed, react violently, or evolve toxic vapors or gases, or which in combination become hazardous by reason of toxicity, oxidizing power, flammability, explosibility, or other properties, shall be evaluated for compatibility before storing. Incompatible substances shall be separated from each other in storage by distance, or by partitions, dikes, berms, secondary containment or otherwise, so as to preclude accidental contact between them.
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) section 104 (i), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), requires ATSDR and the EPA to prepare a list, in order of priority, of substances that are most commonly found at facilities on the National Priorities List (NPL) and which are determined to pose the most significant potential threat to human health due to their known or suspected toxicity and potential for human exposure at these NPL sites. CERCLA also requires this list to be revised periodically to reflect additional information on hazardous substances. In CERCLA, it is called the priority list of hazardous substances that will be candidates for toxicological profiles.
This substance priority list is revised and published on a 2-year basis, with a yearly informal review and revision. (No list was published in 2009 while ATSDR transitioned to a new agency science database.) Each substance on the list is a candidate to become the subject of a toxicological profile prepared by ATSDR. The listing algorithm prioritizes substances based on frequency of occurrence at NPL sites, toxicity, and potential for human exposure to the substances found at NPL sites.
Thus, it is possible for substances with low toxicity but high NPL frequency of occurrence and exposure to be on this priority list. The objective of this priority list is to rank substances across all NPL hazardous waste sites to provide guidance in selecting which substances will be the subject of toxicological profiles prepared by ATSDR.
At room temperature, vinyl chloride is a colorless, highly flammable, potentially explosive gas. It has a faint sweet odor. The odor threshold for vinyl chloride is about 3,000 ppm in air, depending on the individual. When confined under high pressure in special containers, vinyl chloride exists in a liquefied state. It is shipped and handled this way. When burned or heated to a high enough temperature, vinyl chloride decomposes to hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and traces of phosgene. Vinyl chloride should be stored in a cool, dry, well ventilated location, separate from oxidizing materials and accelerants. Phenol is often added as a stabilizer.
Annual production levels of vinyl chloride continue to increase, with 14.98 billion pounds produced in the United States in 1995. Vinyl chloride is produced by chlorinating ethylene to produce 1,2-dichloroethane, which is then subjected to high pressures and temperatures. This causes pyrolysis (thermal cracking) of the 1,2-dichloroethane to produce the vinyl chloride monomer. Most vinyl chloride is polymerized to form polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a material used to manufacture automotive parts and accessories, furniture, packaging materials, pipes, wall coverings, and wire coatings. Vinyl chloride is also used as an intermediate in the production of other chlorinated compounds and as a component in mixed-monomer plastics. Historically, it was used as a solvent, propellant, and refrigerant, and it was once evaluated as a potential anesthetic.
Rescuers should be trained and appropriately attired before entering the Hot Zone. If the proper equipment is not available, or if the rescuers have not been trained in its use, call for assistance from a local or regional hazardous materials (HAZMAT) team or other properly equipped response organization.
Print this handout only.pdf icon[32.4 KB]What is vinyl chloride? Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas at room temperature that has a mild, sweet odor. It is handled and shipped as a liquid under high pressure in a special container. It is used to produce polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a plastic material used to make many products, including automotive parts, furniture, and building materials.
ATSDR can also tell you the location of occupational and environmental health clinics. These clinics specialize in recognizing, evaluating, and treating illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances.
The Secretary or the Secretary's designee may, on a case-by-case basis, when circumstances warrant, require the application of this subpart C with respect to a substance not listed in appendix I to this subpart C that would create thermal or overpressure effect in excess of that listed in 51.203.
The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Chemical Substance Inventory contains all existing chemical substances manufactured, processed, or imported in the United States that do not qualify for an exemption or exclusion under TSCA. This may be your starting place for interaction with EPA on TSCA regulatory matters.
Substance 3D Designer is used across many industries and is at the center of most video game and visual effects material pipelines. Substance parametric materials are supported in most 3D creation tools and will integrate seamlessly into any workflow. Send your materials directly to Substance 3D Painter and Stager.
(c) Batter means a semifluid substance, usually composed of flour and other ingredients, into which principal components of food are dipped or with which they are coated, or which may be used directly to form bakery foods.
(r) Water activity (aw) is a measure of the free moisture in a food and is the quotient of the water vapor pressure of the substance divided by the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature.
(a) Disease control. Any person who, by medical examination or supervisory observation, is shown to have, or appears to have, an illness, open lesion, including boils, sores, or infected wounds, or any other abnormal source of microbial contamination by which there is a reasonable possibility of food, food-contact surfaces, or food-packaging materials becoming contaminated, shall be excluded from any operations which may be expected to result in such contamination until the condition is corrected. Personnel shall be instructed to report such health conditions to their supervisors.
(b) Cleanliness. All persons working in direct contact with food, food-contact surfaces, and food-packaging materials shall conform to hygienic practices while on duty to the extent necessary to protect against contamination of food. The methods for maintaining cleanliness include, but are not limited to:
(4) Removing all unsecured jewelry and other objects that might fall into food, equipment, or containers, and removing hand jewelry that cannot be adequately sanitized during periods in which food is manipulated by hand. If such hand jewelry cannot be removed, it may be covered by material which can be maintained in an intact, clean, and sanitary condition and which effectively protects against the contamination by these objects of the food, food-contact surfaces, or food-packaging materials.
(9) Taking any other necessary precautions to protect against contamination of food, food-contact surfaces, or food-packaging materials with microorganisms or foreign substances including, but not limited to, perspiration, hair, cosmetics, tobacco, chemicals, and medicines applied to the skin.
If the plant grounds are bordered by grounds not under the operator's control and not maintained in the manner described in paragraph (a) (1) through (3) of this section, care shall be exercised in the plant by inspection, extermination, or other means to exclude pests, dirt, and filth that may be a source of food contamination.
(2) Permit the taking of proper precautions to reduce the potential for contamination of food, food-contact surfaces, or food-packaging materials with microorganisms, chemicals, filth, or other extraneous material. The potential for contamination may be reduced by adequate food safety controls and operating practices or effective design, including the separation of operations in which contamination is likely to occur, by one or more of the following means: location, time, partition, air flow, enclosed systems, or other effective means.
(4) Be constructed in such a manner that floors, walls, and ceilings may be adequately cleaned and kept clean and kept in good repair; that drip or condensate from fixtures, ducts and pipes does not contaminate food, food-contact surfaces, or food-packaging materials; and that aisles or working spaces are provided between equipment and walls and are adequately unobstructed and of adequate width to permit employees to perform their duties and to protect against contaminating food or food-contact surfaces with clothing or personal contact.